Government on the Web http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=tag/Collective%20Action en Leadership without Leaders? Starters and Followers in Collective Action on the Internet http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/84 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Article </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Yes </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Collective Action </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">Aug 2013</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-citation"> <div class="field-label">Citation:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Margetts, H., John, P., Hale, S. A., and Reissfelder, S. (2013). Leadership without Leaders? Starters and Followers in Collective Action on the Internet. Political Studies. 2013. <a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.0237" title="http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.0237">http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.0237</a> or <a href="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-9248.12075/" title="http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-9248.12075/">http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-9248.12075/</a></p> </div> </div> </div> <p>The Internet has been ascribed a prominent role in collective action, particularly with widespread use of social media. But most mobilisations fail. We investigate the characteristics of those few mobilisations that succeed and hypothesise that the presence of ‘starters’ with low thresholds for joining will determine whether a mobilisation achieves success, as suggested by threshold models. We use experimental data from public good games to identify personality types associated with willingness to start in collective action. We find a significant association between both extraversion and internal locus of control, and willingness to start, while agreeableness is associated with a tendency to follow. Rounds without at least a minimum level of extraversion among the participants are unlikely to be funded, providing some support for the hypothesis.</p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/84#comments Collective Action ippps Thu, 01 Aug 2013 14:21:39 +0000 Scott A. Hale 84 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Modeling the Rise in Internet-based Petitions http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/83 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Article </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> No </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Collective Action </div> <div class="field-item even"> Big Data </div> <div class="field-item odd"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">Aug 2013</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-citation"> <div class="field-label">Citation:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Yasseri, T., Hale, S.A., and Margetts, H. Modeling the Rise in Internet-based Petitions. Under review. <a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.0239" title="http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.0239">http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.0239</a></p> </div> </div> </div> <p>Collective action taking place on Internet platforms leaves a digital imprint which may be harvested to better understand the dynamics of mobilization. This ‘big data’ offers social science researchers the potential for new forms of analysis, using real-time transactional data based on entire populations, rather than sample-based surveys of what people think they did or might do. This paper uses a big data approach to track the growth of about 20,000 petitions to the UK Government over two years, analyzing the rate of growth and the outreach mechanism. The number of signatures was collected for all petitions with an hourly resolution. The vast majority of petitions did not achieve any measure of success; over 99 percent failed to get the 10,000 signatures required for an official response, and only 0.1 percent attained the 100,000 required for a parliamentary debate. We analyze the data through a multiplicative process model framework to explain the growth of signatures. We have defined and measured an average outreach factor for petitions and show that it decays very fast (reducing to 0.1% after 10 hours); after 24 hours, a petition’s fate is virtually set. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: petitions, collective action, e-democracy, big data, popularity dynamics</p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/83#comments Big Data Citizen-Government Interactions Collective Action ippps Thu, 01 Aug 2013 14:02:25 +0000 Scott A. Hale 83 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Petition Growth and Success Rates on the UK No. 10 Downing Street Website http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/82 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Article </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> No </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Big Data </div> <div class="field-item even"> Collective Action </div> <div class="field-item odd"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">May 2013</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-citation"> <div class="field-label">Citation:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Scott A. Hale, Helen Margetts, and Taha Yasseri. 2013. Petition growth and success rates on the UK No. 10 Downing Street website. In Proceedings of the 5th Annual ACM Web Science Conference (WebSci '13). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 132-138.<br /> [<a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1304.0588">Pre-print</a>] [<a href="http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2464464.2464518">Published Version</a>]</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>Now that so much of collective action takes place online, web-generated data can further understanding of the mechanics of Internet-based mobilisation. This trace data offers social science researchers the potential for new forms of analysis, using real-time transactional data based on entire populations, rather than sample-based surveys of what people think they did or might do. This paper uses a `big data' approach to track the growth of over 8,000 petitions to the UK Government on the No. 10 Downing Street website for two years, analysing the rate of growth per day and testing the hypothesis that the distribution of daily change will be leptokurtic (rather than normal) as previous research on agenda setting would suggest. This hypothesis is confirmed, suggesting that Internet-based mobilisation is characterized by tipping points (or punctuated equilibria) and explaining some of the volatility in online collective action. We find also that most successful petitions grow quickly and that the number of signatures a petition receives on its first day is a significant factor in explaining the overall number of signatures a petition receives during its lifetime. These findings have implications for the strategies of those initiating petitions and the design of web sites with the aim of maximising citizen engagement with policy issues.</p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/82#comments Big Data Citizen-Government Interactions Collective Action ippps Thu, 01 Aug 2013 13:57:39 +0000 Scott A. Hale 82 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Leadership Without Leaders? Starters and Followers in Online Collective Action [Draft] http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/81 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Article </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Yes </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Collective Action </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">Feb 2013</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-citation"> <div class="field-label">Citation:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Margetts, H. Z., John, P., Hale, S. A. and Reissfelder, S. 'Leadership Without Leaders? Starters and Followers in Online Collective Action' (February 18, 2013). Available at <a href="http://www.governmentontheweb.org/publications/81" title="http://www.governmentontheweb.org/publications/81">http://www.governmentontheweb.org/publications/81</a></p> </div> </div> </div> <p>The Internet has been ascribed a prominent role in collective action, particularly with widespread use of social media. But most mobilisations fail. We investigate the characteristics of those few mobilisations that succeed and hypothesise that the presence of ‘starters’ with low thresholds for joining will determine whether a mobilisation achieves success, as suggested by threshold models. We use experimental data from public good games to identify personality types associated with willingness to start in collective action. We find a significant association between both extraversion and internal locus of control, and willingness to start, while agreeableness is associated with a tendency to follow. Rounds without at least a minimum level of extraversion among the participants are unlikely to be funded, providing some support for the hypothesis.</p> <p><a href="http://ssrn.com/abstract=2224187">Please see the latest version on SSRN</a>.</p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/81#comments Collective Action Mon, 25 Feb 2013 20:43:08 +0000 Scott A. Hale 81 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Draft Paper: Understanding the Mechanics of Online Collective Action Using 'Big Data' http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/76 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Paper </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> No </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Collective Action </div> <div class="field-item even"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> <div class="field-item odd"> Big Data </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">Mar 2012</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-citation"> <div class="field-label">Citation:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Hale, Scott A and Margetts, Helen, Understanding the Mechanics of Online Collective Action Using 'Big Data' (March 22, 2012). Available at SSRN: <a href="http://ssrn.com/abstract=2041856" title="http://ssrn.com/abstract=2041856">http://ssrn.com/abstract=2041856</a> or <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2041856" title="http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2041856">http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2041856</a></p> </div> </div> </div> <p>Now that so much of collective action takes place online, web-generated data can further understanding of the mechanics of Internet-based mobilization. This 'big data' offers social science researchers the potential for new forms of analysis, using real-time transactional data based on entire populations, rather than sample-based surveys of what people think they did or might do. This paper uses a 'big data' approach to track the growth of over 8,000 petitions to the UK Government on the No. 10 Downing Street website for two years, analyzing the rate of growth per day and testing the hypothesis that the distribution of daily change will be leptokurtic (rather than normal) as previous research on agenda setting would suggest. This hypothesis is confirmed, suggesting that Internet-based mobilization is characterized by tipping points (or punctuated equilibria) and explaining some of the volatility in online collective action. We find also that most successful petitions grow quickly and that the number of signatures a petition receives on its first day is the most significant factor explaining the overall number of signatures a petition receives during its lifetime. These findings could have implications for the strategies of those initiating petitions and the design of web sites with the aim of maximizing citizen engagement with policy issues. </p> <p>The full draft paper is available on SSRN. We welcome feedback on it.<br /> <a href="http://ssrn.com/abstract=2041856 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2041856">http://ssrn.com/abstract=2041856 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2041856</a></p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/76#comments Big Data Citizen-Government Interactions Collective Action frontpage ippps Sun, 29 Apr 2012 16:45:35 +0000 Scott A. Hale 76 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Leadership without Leaders? Starters and Followers in Online Collective Action http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/71 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Article </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Yes </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Collective Action </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">Aug 2011</span> </div> </div> </div> <div style="width:425px;" id="__ss_9501767"><iframe src="http://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/embed_code/9501767" width="425" height="355" frameborder="0" marginwidth="0" marginheight="0" scrolling="no"></iframe></div> <p>Presented by Helen Margetts and Peter John at the European Consortium of Political Research (ECPR) general conference in Rejkavik on 26 August 2011.</p> <table id="attachments" class="sticky-enabled"> <thead><tr><th>Attachment</th><th>Size</th> </tr></thead> <tbody> <tr class="odd"><td><a href="http://www.governmentontheweb.org/sites/governmentontheweb.org/files/Leaders_and_followers.pdf">Leaders and followers</a></td><td>689.16 KB</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/71#comments Collective Action frontpage ippps oxlab Mon, 03 Oct 2011 09:31:19 +0000 Scott A. Hale 71 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org The Internet, Public Policy and Political Science: Collective Action, Governance and Citizen-Government Interactions in the Digital Era http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=projects/70 <div class="field field-type-date field-field-project-date"> <div class="field-label">Project Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-start">Apr 2011</span><span class="date-display-separator"> - </span><span class="date-display-end">Apr 2014</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-project-cat"> <div class="field-label">Categories:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Digital Era Governance </div> <div class="field-item even"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> <div class="field-item odd"> Collective Action </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Yes </div> </div> </div> <p>We are currently engaged in a three-year research programme on The Internet, Public Policy and Political Science: Collective Action, Governance and Citizen-Government Interactions in the Digital Era, which started 1st April 2011.</p> <p>More information about this project is available in the <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/news/?id=516"><strong>OII press release</strong></a>, and <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/?id=71"><strong>project description page</strong></a>.</p> <p>This research programme aims to assess where political science understanding, knowledge and theory should be re-examined and developed in light of widespread use of the Internet, and to develop methodologies to study online behaviour.</p> <h2>Outputs (ongoing)</h2> <ul> <li><a href="/publications/82">Petition Growth and Success Rates on the UK No. 10 Downing Street Website</a></li> <li><a href="/publications/83">Modeling the Rise in Internet-based Petitions</a></li> <li><a href="/publications/84">Leadership without Leaders? Starters and Followers in Collective Action on the Internet</a> </li><li> </li><li><a href="/publications/69">Draft: Applying Social Influence to Collective Action: Heterogeneous Personality Effects</a></li> <li><a href="/publications/68">Social Information and Political Participation on the Internet: an Experiment</a></li> </ul> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=projects/70#comments Citizen-Government Interactions Collective Action Digital Era Governance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 08:52:16 +0000 Scott A. Hale 70 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Draft Paper: Applying Social Influence to Collective Action: Heterogeneous Personality Effects http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/69 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Article </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Yes </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Collective Action </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">Sep 2011</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-citation"> <div class="field-label">Citation:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Margetts, H. John, P. Reissfelder, S. and Hale, S. "Applying Social Influence to Collective Action: Heterogeneous Personality Effects" (December 2011).</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>Political scientists and economists commonly test for different kinds of social influence on collective action, particularly social pressure (visibility) and social information about the contributions of others (leading to conditional cooperation) but rarely in the same study design. This paper assesses the relative effect of these two kinds of social influence suggesting that their impact is best understood through hypothesizing for heterogeneous treatment effects based on personality. We report a step - level public goods game where participants were allocated tokens to contribute to collective action scenarios subject to a provision point. We find that visibility has an impact on individual contributions, but social information does not. However, both social visibility and social information positively affect the overall likelihood of a good being funded. We show that personality can help to explain these differences in the impact of treatments. We identify social value orientation as the personality characteristic most useful in explaining heterogeneity of the treatments rather than the ‘Big 5’ personality traits.</p> <p>This is a draft paper on which we welcome feedback. The <a href="http://ssrn.com/abstract=1892805">current version</a> may be found at <a href="http://ssrn.com/abstract=1892805">SSRN</a>.</p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/69#comments Collective Action frontpage ippps oxlab Wed, 28 Sep 2011 08:46:29 +0000 Scott A. Hale 69 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Social Information and Political Participation on the Internet: an Experiment http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/68 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Article </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Yes </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Collective Action </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">Jul 2011</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-citation"> <div class="field-label">Citation:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Margetts, H. John, P., Escher, T. and Reissfelder, S. (2011) "Social Information and Political Participation on the Internet: an Experiment," European Political Science Review.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>This paper tests whether the social information provided by the internet affects the decision to participate in politics. In a field experiment, subjects could choose to sign petitions and donate money to support causes. Participants were randomized into treatment groups that received varying information about how many other people had participated and a control group receiving no social information. Results show that social information has a varying effect according to the numbers provided, which is strongest when there are more than a million other participants, supporting claims about critical mass, and tipping points in political participation.</p> <p>This paper is available for download at:<br /> <a href="http://journals.cambridge.org/repo_A83VUeRy">http://journals.cambridge.org/repo_A83VUeRy</a></p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/68#comments Collective Action frontpage ippps oxlab Mon, 11 Jul 2011 08:43:24 +0000 Scott A. Hale 68 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org New research project: The Internet, Public Policy and Political Science http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=blog/2011/04/new-research-project-internet-public-policy-and-political-science <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-blog-tags"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Digital Era Governance </div> <div class="field-item even"> Collective Action </div> <div class="field-item odd"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> </div> </div> <p>We will begin a new three-year research programme on <em>The Internet, Public Policy and Political Science: Collective Action, Governance and Citizen-Government Interactions in the Digital Era</em> starting 1st April.</p> <p>More information about this project is available in the <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/news/?id=516"><strong>OII press release</strong></a>, and <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/?id=71"><strong>project description page</strong></a>.</p> <!--break--><!--break--><p>This research programme aims to assess where political science understanding, knowledge and theory should be re-examined and developed in light of widespread use of the Internet, and to develop methodologies to study online behaviour.</p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=blog/2011/04/new-research-project-internet-public-policy-and-political-science#comments Citizen-Government Interactions Collective Action Digital Era Governance frontpage ippps Fri, 01 Apr 2011 17:14:48 +0000 Scott A. Hale 67 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org